April 23, 2006

P2P: Peer to Peer and Network costs

I'm not sure I was clear on the root issue that prompted my Growing-Pains-of-the-Video-Web article (though reading the links from that post will help...).

The short (short) version: although P2P technologies relieve scalability and cost problems for the originating server(s) - which is good for scaling the Internet, they don't help at all with the Network infrastructure congestion and cost issues, which is not so good.

There are some extensions and exceptions to that (for example, P2P in corporate LAN sort of helps shift some of the costs), but by and large, the reason that
some ISPs, University sys admins , et al, are crying foul: it costs them time and money to deliver value for someone else.

And these are only the leading indicators...

6 comments:

zy5y said...

The leading indicator probably also indicates the next round of innovation at the internet infrastructure level, maybe there is a need for another level above the physical topology to optimize it for bandwidth hog applications, p2p is but one of the alternatives.

Who knows, maybe it will be cache and proxy at the headend/co level for objects with a high size x download frequency factor; maybe they can charge premium for more bandwidth(Cox has been doing this by charging $20/mo extra for 15Mb download vs 5Mb standard offering but that probably give my packets a higher priority only in my neighborhood).

I guess if there is enough applications(that are legal) to make me feel an extra 20 bucks a month is worth it, and if that math also works out for my access provider, I am sure my packets will be chauffeured around over the proverbial HOV lane. But for now the cable guys are too focused on their own video products and see anything not house brand as competition, leaving them with little incentive to help us geek and leading indicator consumers who pride ourselves in not paying too much...

Sree Kotay said...

zy5y, good points. Question is: who should pay?

From a pipe provider perspective, I'm sure they don't care (much), as long as somebody does.

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根据不同情况,Welding electrodes有三种分类方法:按焊条用途分类、按药皮的主要化学成分分类、按药皮熔化后熔渣的特性分类。
按照焊条的用途,可以将Welding electrodes分为:结构钢焊条、耐热钢焊条、不锈钢焊条、堆焊焊条、低温钢焊条、铸铁焊条、镍和镍合金焊条、铜及铜合金焊条、铝及铝合金焊条以及特殊用途焊条。
如果按照焊条药皮的主要化学成分来分类,可以将<Welding electrodes分为:氧化钛型焊条、氧化钛钙型焊条、钛铁矿型焊条、氧化铁型焊条、纤维素型焊条、低氢型焊条、
石墨型焊条及盐基型焊条。
如果按照焊条药皮熔化后,熔渣的特性来分类,可将Welding electrodes分为酸性焊条和碱性焊条。酸性焊条药皮的主要成分为酸性氧化物,如二氧化硅、二氧化钛、三氧化二铁等。碱性焊条药皮的主要成分为碱性氧化物,如大理石、萤石等。
焊接时作为填充金属或同时作为导电用的金属丝焊接材料。在气焊和钨极气体保护电弧焊时,welding wire用作填充金属;在埋弧焊、电渣焊和其他熔化极气体保护电弧焊时,welding wire既是填充金属,同时也是导电电极。welding wire可分为3类。焊丝的表面不涂防氧化作用的焊剂。
① 轧制焊丝:大多数焊丝属于此类,包括碳钢焊丝、低合金结构钢welding wire、合金结构钢焊丝、不锈钢焊丝和有色金属焊丝等。
② 铸造焊丝:有些合金,如钴铬钨合金,不能锻、轧和拔丝,而用铸造方法制成。它主要用于工件表面的手工堆焊,以满足如抗氧化、耐磨损和高温下耐腐蚀等特殊性能要求。采用连续浇注和液态挤压可制造出长达数米的钴铬钨焊丝,用于自动填丝钨极气体保护电弧焊,以提高焊接效率和堆焊层质量,同时还能改善劳动条件。铸铁补焊有时也采用铸造焊丝。
③药芯焊丝:用薄钢带卷成圆形或异形钢管,内填一定成分的药粉,经拉制成的有缝药芯welding wire,或用钢管填满药粉拉制成的无缝药芯焊丝(见图)。用这种焊丝焊接熔敷效率高,对钢材适应性好,试制周期短,因而它的使用量和使用范围不断扩大。这种焊丝主要用于二氧化碳气体保护焊、埋弧焊和电渣焊。药芯焊丝中的药粉成分一般与焊条药皮相似。含有造渣、造气和稳弧成分的药芯焊丝焊接时不需要保护气体,称自保护药芯焊丝,适用于大型焊接结构工程的施工。

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